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Version: 8 October 2019

IJF REFEREEING RULES

All refereeing matters are the responsibility of the IJF Refereeing Commission.

D1.1 Refereeing - Culture, History and Principles

Jujitsu is the generic term that regroups all of the methods of empty hand combat that the warriors of the Japanese Middle Ages practiced.

The fierce fights between the various schools of jujitsu contributed to the notoriety of their masters and pupils; it was in general duels between the schools that opposed the best practitioner of each among them.

Jigoro Kano at the end of the 19th century developed a school of jujitsu, that he called “JUDO”, different from the other “Ryu” by its target. Like the other schools, Judo cultivated the maximal efficiency, but the goal was not the same.

“The improvement of man and society “

Judo is a method of physical, intellectual and moral education, by the practice of a martial art.

Judo is the only martial art derived from Jujitsu where the grip of the opponent is obligatory; this is what gave its technical wealth, finesse and intelligence. The confrontation in jujitsu didn’t allow real fighting since the goal was to kill without being killed oneself.

Jigoro Kano created a discipline where the confrontations allowed techniques to be applied completely, without ever injuring the opponent.

Ippon was granted only if the fall of the opponent was controlled until they hit the ground, or they submitted.

Apart from the elbow joint where one must leave the possibility for their adversary to quit, all techniques are executed in the sense of articulation and never in hyper extension.

The control of the fall direction, the impact and the speed of execution are the definition of the perfect success of the throwing technique.

Judo is not a struggle where one accumulates advantages or points, whether standing up or on the ground, judo is a duel with a code. The only goal is ippon; all other values can be counted only if there is a will to score ippon.

The evolution of contests and refereeing through the years

Of the challenges inter-schools of jujitsu without mercy, one passed, a little more than 100 years later, to be a member discipline of the International Olympic Committee.

The competition is today extremely well regulated and fully corresponds to the “Olympic Charter” humanist, educational and social. Judo remains nevertheless a martial art where a 100% duel must be the rule. An accumulation of points doesn’t give the victory, it is the perfect technique that is rewarded with an ippon that puts an end to the contest.

The only exception was “waza-ari-awazete - ippon” where, in this case two techniques were executed and were evaluated as nearly ippon. It is judged that they can correspond to “out of contest” (as at the time of the warriors of the Middle Ages) and counted in judo like “ippon“.

The refereeing must take into account the philosophical aspect of the duel between the two competitors and reward them by the correct value or the correct sanction.

The rewards are:

- Ippon or nearly ippon (waza-ari)

The sanctions are:

- A warning or disqualification, according to the severity, for those who put in danger their own health or that of their opponents, those who refuse to contest, those who stop the contest from taking place fairly, who comes out of the contest area. All actions contrary to the spirit of judo must also be punished.

The one who wins is the one who executed “THE” best technique or for “Hansoku-make” of the opponent (technical penalties or due to action against spirit of Judo).

Culturally and in complement, judo doesn’t reduce itself to its Olympic expression, judo remains a martial art, judo is more than a sport, all the techniques of the Gokyo are part of the judo heritage and must always be taught.

It is the same for the “kappo“, techniques of resuscitations and joint mobilisations practiced about forty years ago by the judo teachers and the referees which are these days forbidden in some countries. Their practice is not allowed but their knowledge is part of the judo heritage and should under no circumstances be forgotten. Their practice isn’t allowed for referees in IJF WJT competitions.

The referees are the guards of the physical, cultural and philosophical expression of Judo.

Judo must be understood to be appreciated

Article 1 - Referees and Officials

To referee at an IJF event a referee must hold an IJF international licence and be active in their nation and continent. The IJF Referee Commission will select the referees for the IJF events. The selection is based on:

The IJF referee ranking list.

The level of the event.

The period in which the event takes place (e.g. during or out of Olympic qualification).

The development stage of the referee.

Generally, the contest shall be conducted by three referees of different nationalities to the two competing athletes. For team competitions the same principle applies. In advance of the competition, before the weight category per mat distribution, the selected referees are allocated to a tatami. The assignment of the referees and judges to each contest is done using the IJF tournament software. The selection is done to guarantee nation neutrality and gives, in the long run, approximately the same number of assignments to be a referee on the mat and a judge on the technical table. After following these conditions, the selection done is completely random.

At each IJF WJT event there are 2 independent assessors whose sole function is to evaluate the referees based on their knowledge of the rules, their performance during each contest and the number of times corrections need to be made. The best referees from the preliminaries, on that day, are selected for the final block. At the end of the competition each referee is given an evaluation (score). This score is then added to the IJF referee ranking list.

No one shall exercise the function of a referee during the events organised by the IJF or Continental Union if he holds the position of National Federation President, coach, doctor, official of the national team, National Refereeing Director and /or is responsible for the selection of the referees and of their evaluation; except National Federations Referee Directors can referee at cadet and junior continental cups and competitions excluding Continental Championships (IJF Executive Committee decision 17 January 2019).

The referees shall be assisted by technical officials who will operate the timing and scoring system and complete the competition paperwork.

The referee on the tatami has a radio communication system that is connected with the two judges on the technical table.

The IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members who can possibly intervene, are sitting at their reserved places with their own CARE system. They are connected with the referee and the judges via headphones. The procedure is detailed in Article 13.6.

Article 2 - Position and Function of the Referee

Before officiating a contest, the referees should familiarise themselves with the sound of the gong or means of indicating the end of the contest on their particular tatami and with the position of the medical table. He should also check that his radio and headset are working. The referee has to ensure that the surface of the competition area is clean and in good condition and there are no gaps between the tatami. The referee should ensure that there are no spectators, supporters or photographers in a position to cause a nuisance or a risk of injury to the contestants.

The referee should ensure that all is in good order (e.g. competition area, equipment, uniforms, hygiene, technical officials etc.) before starting the contest.

The referee shall generally stay within the contest area. He shall conduct the contest and administer the decisions. He shall ensure that the decisions are correctly recorded.

In exceptional cases (e.g. when both contestants are in ne-waza and facing outwards) the referee may observe the action from the safety area.

The referee should leave the competition area during presentations or any lengthy delay in the programme.

The contestant wearing the blue judogi is to the left of the referee and the contestant wearing the white judogi is to the right of the referee.

Article 3 - Position and Function of the Judges

Two referees, acting as judges, will be seated at the technical table and will be refereeing together with the referee. They are connected by radios and will act according to the ‘majority of three’ rule.

Should a judge notice that the scoreboard is incorrect he should draw the referee’s attention to the mistake, and it should be corrected.

Should a contestant have to change any part of the judogi outside the competition area or need to temporarily leave the competition area after the contest has started for a reason considered necessary by the central referee, giving this authorisation only in exceptional circumstances, a judge must obligatorily go with the contestant to see that no anomaly occurs.

In case that the judges are not of the same gender, an official designated by the Refereeing Director shall substitute for the judges and accompany the contestant.

Article 4 – Gestures

The referee shall make gestures as indicated below when taking the following actions:

1. Ippon: shall raise one arm high above the head with the palm of the hand facing forward.

2. Waza-ari: shall raise one of his arms sideways to shoulder height with the palm of the hand facing downwards.

3. Waza-ari-awasete-ippon: first waza-ari, then the ippon gesture.

4. Osaekomi: shall point his arm, with the palm of the hand facing downwards, out from his body down towards the contestants while facing the contestants and bending his body towards them.

5. Toketa: shall raise one of his arms, with the fingers of the hand straight and forward and the thumb up, to the front and wave it from right to left quickly two or three times while bending his body towards the contestants.

6. Mate: shall raise one of his arms to shoulder height approximately parallel to the tatami and display the flattened palm of his hand (fingers up) to the timing and scoring technical officials.

7. Sono-mama: shall bend forward and touch both contestants with the palms of his hands.

8. Yoshi: shall firmly touch both contestants with the palms of his hands and bring pressure on them.

9. To indicate the cancellation of an expressed opinion: shall repeat with one hand the same gesture while raising the other hand above the head to the front and wave it from right to left two or three times. There should be no announcement made when cancelling an expressed opinion (score or penalty).

Should a rectification gesture be required, it shall be done as quickly as possible after the cancellation gesture.

If the situation allows, the referee will signal the cancellation when the fighters can see this gesture.

10. To indicate the winner of a contest: shall raise one hand, palm in, above shoulder height towards the winner.

11. To direct the contestant(s) to re-adjust the judogi: shall cross left hand over right, palms facing inwards, at belt height. To award a penalty towards the contestant who does not re-adjust their judogi correctly between the mate and the subsequent hajime: point towards the contestant (s) to be penalised with the forefinger extended from a closed fist while announcing the penalty and, then, cross left hand over right, palms facing inwards, at belt height.

12. To call the doctor: shall face the medical table, wave an arm (palm upwards) from the direction of medical table towards the injured contestant.

13. To award a penalty (shido or hansoku-make): shall point towards the contestant to be penalised with the forefinger extended from a closed fist.

14. Non-combativity: shall rotate, with a forward motion, the forearms at chest height then point with the forefinger at the contestant to be penalised.

15. False attack: shall extend both arms forward, with hands closed and then make a downward action with both hands.

16. Further gestures in case of penalties: they will be executed in compliance with the action to be sanctioned (see Article 18 - Prohibited Acts and Penalties).

When it is not clearly apparent, the referee may, after the official signal, point to the blue or white contestant (starting position) to indicate which contestant scored or was penalised.

To indicate to the contestant/s that he may sit cross-legged at the starting position if a lengthy delay in the contest is envisaged, the referee should signal towards the starting position with an open hand, palm upwards.

The waza-ari gesture should start with the arm across the chest, then sideways to the correct finishing position.

The waza-ari gestures should be maintained for three (3) to five (5) seconds while moving to ensure that the score is clearly visible to the judges. However, care should be taken when turning to keep the contestants within view.

Should both contestants be given a penalty, the referee should make the proper gesture and point alternately at both contestants (left forefinger for contestant on his left and right forefinger for contestant on his right).

To indicate the winner, the referee shall return to his position at start of the contest, take one step forward, indicate the winner and then take one step back.

Article 5 - Location (Valid Areas)

The contest shall be fought in the contest area.

All actions are valid and may continue (no mate) as long as either contestant has some part of their body touching the contest area and the action started inside the contest area.

Any new technique applied when both contestants are outside the contest area shall not be recognized.

Exceptions

a) When a throw is started with only one contestant in contact with the contest area, but during the action both contestants move outside the contest area, the action may be considered for point scoring purposes if the throwing action continues uninterrupted.

Similarly, any immediate counter technique by the player who was not in contact with the contest area when the throwing action started inside, may be considered for point scoring purposes if the action continues uninterrupted.

b) Ne-waza action (aimed at osaekomi, kansetsu-waza or shime-waza) is valid and may continue outside of the contest area if it was started from inside.

The kansetsu-waza and shime-waza initiated inside the contest area and recognized as being effective to the opponent can be maintained, even if the contestants are outside the contest area, as long there is progression.

c) Ne-waza outside the contest area: if the throwing action is finished outside the competition area and immediately one of the players applies osaekomi, shime-waza or kansetsu-waza, this technique shall be valid as long there is progression.

If during ne-waza. outside the contest area, uke takes over the control with one of these nominated techniques in a continuous succession, it shall also be valid.

d) If during ne-waza outside the contest area the contestants go out of the safety area, this situation shall be dealt with and a decision given by the referees after consultation with the IJF Supervisors and/or IJF Refereeing Commission members.

Once the contest has started, if permission is given by the referee, the contestants can leave the competition area. Permission will only be given in very exceptional circumstances, such as the necessity to change a judogi or which has become damaged or soiled.

The same permission will be given in the case of an accident for which the doctor is required; this intervention will be done off of the tatami, near the area itself or close to the medical facility; the athlete will be accompanied by a judge or a referee not involved in the trio.

Article 6 - Duration of the Contest

1. The duration of the contests and the paperwork shall be determined according to the rules of the tournament.

For all IJF competitions the time duration of the contests will be:

Senior Men / Team: 4 minutes real contest time

Senior Women / Team: 4 minutes real contest time

Junior under 21 Men and Women /Team: 4 minutes real contest time

Cadet under 18 Men and Women / Team: 4 minutes real contest time

These times should be followed by National Federation for senior, junior and cadet competitions.

2. Any contestant is entitled to a 10 minutes rest between contests.

Article 7 - Osaekomi Time

a) Ippon: 20 seconds.

b) Waza-ari: 10 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds.

Article 8 - Technique Coinciding with the Time Signal

1. Any immediate result of a technique started simultaneously with the time signal shall be valid.

2. Although a throwing technique may be applied simultaneously with the bell, if the referee and the judges or the IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members decide that it will not be effective immediately, the referee shall announce sore-made, without any value for scoring purposes.

3. Any technique applied after the ringing of the bell to indicate the expiry of the time of the contest shall not be valid, even if the referee has not yet announced sore-made.

4. Simultaneous osaekomi with the time signal: when osaekomi is announced simultaneously with the bell or similar audible device indicating the time signal allotted for the contest or when the remaining time is insufficient to allow for the completion of the osaekomi, the time allotted for the contest shall be extended until either ippon (or equivalence) is announced or the referee announces sore-made.

During that time the contestant who receives the osaekomi (uke) can counterattack by applying shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. In case of getting a give up or incapacity of the contestant making the osaekomi (tori), the one who’s under osaekomi (uke) will win the contest by ippon.

Article 9 - Start of the Contest

1. The referee and the judges shall always be in position to start the contest before the arrival on the contest area of the contestants.

In individual competition the referee shall be at the tatami centre 2 m back from the line from which the contestants start and shall be facing the timekeepers’ table and the judges will be seated at their respective table.

In team competitions, before the start of the contests from every encounter, it shall proceed to the bowing ceremony between the two teams as follows:

a) The referee will remain in the same place as in the individual competitions. At his indication, the two teams will come in on the side allotted, in line for the outer edge of contest area, in descending order and the heaviest weight being closer to the referee, standing face-to-face team.

b) On the order of the referee the two (2) teams will move ahead to the starting position on the mat.

c) The referee shall order the teams turn towards the technical table, extending his arms in parallel forward, with open palms, and will announce rei, to be held simultaneously by all components of both teams. The referee shall not bow.

d) Then the referee shall order, in a gesture of arms at right angles forearms up and palms facing each other “otagai-ni” (bow to each other), the two teams again be face to face, announcing rei, to be held the same way as in the previous section.

e) After finishing the bowing ceremony, the components of the two teams will come out through the same place which they entered, waiting, on the outer edge centred of the contest area, the contestants of each team must make the first contest. In each contest, they will perform the same procedure of bowing that in individual competition.

f) After finishing the last contest of the encounter, the referee will order the teams to proceed as described in paragraph a) and b), announcing, then the winner. The bowing ceremony will be held in the reverse order of the start, bowing first to each other and, finally, to the technical table.

2. The contestants are free to bow when entering or leaving the contest area, although it is not compulsory.

When entering the tatami area, athletes should walk to the entrance of the contest area at the same time.

The contestants must NOT shake hands before the start of the contest.

3. The contestants shall then walk to the centre of the edge of the contest area (on the safety area) at their respective side according the fighting order (judoka in the white judogi on the right side and judoka in the blue judogi on the left side of the referee’s position) and remain standing there.

At the signal from the referee, the contestants shall move forward to their respective starting positions and bow simultaneously towards each other and take a step forward from the left foot.

Once the contest is over and the referee has award the result, the contestants shall simultaneously take a step back from the right foot and bow to each other.

If the contestants do not bow or do so incorrectly, the referee shall direct the contestants to do so. It is very important to perform the bow in a very correct way.

4. The contest always starts with the athletes in the standing position, wearing their judogi correctly with the belt tied tightly above their hip bones, then the referee announces hajime.

During the contest the judoka should always fix their judogi quickly between “mate” and “hajime”.

5. The accredited doctor may request that the referee stops the contest in the cases and with the consequences regulated in Article 20.

6. The IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members may interrupt the contest and will interfere only when there is a mistake that needs to be rectified.

The intervention and any change to the decisions of the referees by the IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members will be made only in exceptional circumstances.

The interventions of the IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members should take place in three (3) cases:

  • A mistake of awarding the action between the white and the blue competitor.
  • On the awarding of hansoku-make for actions contrary to the spirit of judo or which may have further consequences for the athlete who has committed them.
  • Exceptional cases.

There is no appeal procedure for coaches, but they can, after submitting a “request of coach to review a contest on video by IJF Supervisors and/or the IJF Refereeing Commission members”, at the end of the session, to watch the reason for the change to the final decision.

Article 10 - Transition from Tachi-waza into Ne-waza

(A) and from Ne-waza into Tachi-waza (B)

It is considered to be tachi-waza when both athletes are in a standing position and are not in any of the following ne-waza positions.

Both athletes must have two knees on the floor, for it to be considered ne-waza (picture 1). If there is a loss of contact between the athletes and there is no possibility of continuation, mate must be called (picture 2). Lying on the stomach on the ground, the blue athlete is considered to be in ne-waza (picture 3). Grip control from the standing athlete (white), we still consider the athlete (blue) on the knees to be in tachi-waza and consequently tachi-waza regulations would be applied (picture 4). However, if white does not attack immediately, then the referee must call mate! The kneeling athlete (blue) on cannot grab the legs to defend the throw with his arms, if this happens, shido will be given.

1 2 3 4

In this position (below) the blue athlete can touch the leg. A throw (by white or blue) from this position cannot be considered for a score.

If the blue athlete has two elbows and two knees on the floor, the white athlete can do a technique but ONLY to transition into ne-waza.

In this position (below) the white athlete can throw his opponent, but the attack must be done immediately.

Grip control from standing athlete (white). The athlete on his knees (blue) in tachi-waza so tachi-waza rules will be applied. If the white athlete does not attack immediately the referee must call mate!

In this position (below) the athlete on the knees (blue) cannot grab the legs with the hands/arms to defend the throw. If this happens, shido will be given.

A1. The contestants shall be able to change from nage-waza to ne-waza as far as it is done by one of the cases referred to in this Article. However, if the technique used is not continuous, the referee shall announce mate and order both contestants to resume the contest from the standing position.

A1. Exceptions

Situations that are not allowed during tachi-waza

a) To apply kansetu-waza or shime-waza (alone or combined with a judo throwing technique) when both athletes are in a standing position or move with this technique from tachi-waza to ne-waza (See Article 18).

A2. Situations that allow the transition from tachi-waza to ne-waza

a) When one of the contestants, lands on the ground and there is no score or waza-ari is given, either contestant can, without interruption, take the offensive and continue in ne-waza.

Example: in this position tori can apply sutemi-waza that can continue into ne-waza.

Example: in this position tori can apply a throwing technique and can continue with kansetsu-waza, shime-waza or osaekomi-waza (not shown).

b) When one contestant takes his opponent down into ne-waza by the particularly skilful application of a movement which does not qualify as a throwing technique.

c) In any other case where one contestant falls down or is about to fall down, not covered by the preceding sub-sections of this article, the other contestant may take advantage of his opponent’s unbalanced position to go into ne-waza.

A2. Exceptions

When one contestant pulls his opponent down into ne-waza not in accordance with the above rules and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the referee shall announce mate, and penalise with shido the contestant who has infringed Article 18. If instead, the opponent takes advantage of the action of tori, the ne-waza work may continue.

B1. The contestants shall be able to change from ne-waza to tachi-waza as far as it is done by the case below. However, if the technique used is not continuous, the referee shall announce mate and order both contestants to resume the contest from the standing position.

B2. The situation is not dangerous for both athletes with or without grips and both athletes are more or less face to face.

The kata-sankaku grip in ne-waza action is allowed (picture 1). It is prohibited to block the opponent’s body with the legs and must be mate (picture 2). If the kata-sankaku grip is used in tachi-waza mate will be called (picture 3).

1 2 3

Article 11 - Application of Mate

1. General

The referee shall announce mate in order to stop the contest temporarily in the situations covered by this article. To recommence the contest, the referee shall announce hajime.

The contestants must quickly return after mate to their starting positions in the following cases:

  • The referee will give shido for stepping outside.
  • The referee will give a third (3rd) shido - hansoku-make.
  • The referee will ask the contestants to adjust their judogi.
  • The referee is of the opinion that a contestant(s) requires medical attention.

When a mate must be given for a shido to the athlete deserving it, contestants will remain in place, without having to return to the starting position (mate – shido – hajime).

The referee having announced mate, must take care to maintain the contestants within his view in case they did not hear the announcement and continue fighting or if any other incident arises.

2. Situations where the referee shall announce mate:

a) When both contestants go completely outside the contest area without continuous action that started from inside the contest area.

b) When one or both of the contestants perform one of the prohibited acts listed in Article 18 of these rules.

c) When one or both of the competitors are injured or taken ill. Should any of the situations of Article 20 occur, the referee, after announcing mate, shall call the doctor to perform the necessary medical attention according to said article, either upon the request of the contestant, or directly depending on the seriousness of the injury. In cases of “minor” injury, the medical intervention will be carried out outside the contest area, near the area itself or close to the medical facility; the Athlete will be accompanied by a judge or referee not involved in the trio.

d) When it is necessary for one or both of the contestants to adjust their judogi.

e) When during ne-waza there is no evident progress.

f) When one contestant regains a standing or semi-standing position from ne-waza bearing his opponent on his back, with the hands completely clear of the tatami and without his opponent being able to progress the action.

g) When one contestant in, or from ne-waza regains a standing position and lifts the opponent, who is lying on their back with one (1) or both legs around any part of the standing contestant, clear of the tatami.

h) When a contestant performs or attempts to perform kansetsu-waza or shime-waza from the standing position.

i) When one of the contestants starts or perform any preparatory moves of a kind of fighting or wrestling technique (not genuine judo) the referee shall call immediately mate, trying to stop and not to let the contestant who performs, finishes the action.

j) When tori applies shime-waza or kansetsu-waza by stretching uke’s leg.

k) When in any other case that the referee deems it necessary to do so.

3. Situations where the referee shall not announce mate:

a) To stop the contestant(s) going outside the contest area unless the situation is considered dangerous.

b) When there is a throwing that started inside the contest area and both judoka continue to go outside as part of the action.

c) When a contestant, who has escaped from osaekomi-waza, shime-waza or kansetsu-waza, appears in need of or calls for a rest.

These are valid actions and mate should not be called.

Mate should not be given as the action started in the valid area.

Article 12 – Sono-mama

1. Sono-mama can only be applied in situations where contestants are working in ne-waza.

2. In any case where the referee wishes to temporarily stop the contest without causing a change in their positions, he/she shall announce sono-mama, making the gesture under Article 4.7 while he must ensure that there is no change in the position or grip of either contestant.

3. To recommence the contest, the referee shall announce yoshi making the gesture under Article 4.8.

Article 13 - End of the Contest

1. In regular time (4 minutes), a contest can only be won by a technical score or scores (waza-ari or ippon).

A penalty or penalties will not decide the winner, except for hansoku-make (direct or accumulative). A penalty never corresponds to a score.

The referee shall announce sore-made to indicate the end of contest in the cases covered in this article. After this announcement the referee shall always keep the contestants within his view in case, they do not hear his announcement and continue fighting. The referee shall direct the contestants to adjust their judogi, if necessary, prior to indicating the result.

After the referee has indicated the result of the contest making the gesture under Article 4, the contestants shall take one step backwards, make the bow and leave the contest area by the sides of the mat, particularly around the security area.

When the athletes are leaving the mat, they must be wearing their judogi in the proper way and must not remove any part of the judogi or the belt before leaving the field of play.

Should the referee award the victory to the wrong contestant in error, the judges must ensure that he changes this erroneous decision before the referee leave the competition area; if this doesn’t happen the IJF Supervisors and/or the Refereeing Commission members can intervene to solve this mistake.

All actions and decisions taken in accordance with the “majority of three” rule by the referees and agreed by the IJF Supervisors and/or Refereeing Commission members shall be final and without appeal.

2. Situations of sore-made:

a) When one contestant scores ippon or waza-ari-awasete-ippon (Articles 15 & 16).

b) In the case of kiken-gachi (Article 19).

c) In the case of hansoku-make (Article 18).

d) When one contestant cannot continue due to injury (Article 20).

e) When the time allotted for the contest has expired.

f) Waza-ari from a throwing action in golden score.

3. The referee shall award the contest as follows:

a) When one contestant has scored ippon or equivalent, he shall be declared the winner.

b) When both players have no technical score, or the technical scores are equal at the end of the regular contest time, the contest shall continue in golden score regardless number of shido given.

4. Golden score period

In individual and team competitions when contest time ends with the circumstances of paragraph 3b. of this article, the referee shall announce “sore-made” to end the contest temporarily and the contestants shall return to their starting positions.

The referee shall announce “hajime” to restart the contest. There shall be no rest period between the end of the original contest and the start of golden score.

There is no time limit for golden score. Any existing score(s) and/or numbers of shido from regular time are carried into the golden score period and will remain on the score board.

Golden score can only be won by a technical score (waza-ari or ippon) or hansoku-make (direct or by accumulative shido). If direct hansoku-make is given, the consequences are the same as those in regular time.

The referee will then announce sore-made.

In the golden score period osaekomi is going until the end (20 seconds). When one contestant is being held down and osaekomi has been announced, the referee shall allow the hold down to continue as long as possible (giving the athlete the opportunity to score ippon) or until toketa, mate or until shime- waza/ kansetsu-waza is applied by either contestant with immediate result.

However, if the hold is broken before ippon is scored but waza-ari has been scored the contest will be finished and the winner declared.

5. Special situations during golden score.

a) Should only one contestant exercise his right to participate in the “golden score” period, and the other contestant declines, the contestant who wishes to compete shall be declared the winner by “kiken-gachi”.

b) In the case where both contestants score ippon simultaneously during the time allotted for regular time, the contest shall be decided by a “golden score” period. In the case of simultaneous ippon during the “golden score” period the referee shall announce mate, continuing the contest without taking into account these actions for scoring purposes.

c) For direct hansoku-make given to both contestants, the IJF Ad Hoc Commission will decide.

6. CARE system

Viewing of the CARE system and subsequent communication with the referees as regulated in this article shall be up to the discretion of the IJF Supervisors and/or

IJF Refereeing Commission Members that oversee the mat. The IJF Supervisors are responsible for all rules and decisions during the contest. In exceptional circumstances the decision will be made by the IJF Supervisors and IJF Refereeing Commission Members.

Supervisors with the collaboration of the IJF Head Referee Directors must intervene in extreme circumstances and let the referees do their work in accordance with the rule of the “majority of the three”. The intervention must be immediate without loss of time or hesitation as follows: immediately all agree, the decision is validated or corrected; the situation is not clear and there is no unanimity, no intervention is carried out (hajime).

Mandatory reviewing using the CARE system in support of the decision on the mat will be done under the following circumstances:

1) Any decision involving the end of the contest, during the contest time as well as in the period of “golden score”.

2) In a kaeshi-waza situation: the judoka receiving the attack and starting the counterattack, CANNOT use the impact of landing on the tatami to finish his kaeshi-waza action and have it evaluated. If the action allows it, he can however continue in ne-waza:

  • If the two athletes land together without clear control for either one, no score will be given.
  • Any action after landing will be considered as a ne-waza action.

There shall be no unauthorised use or request of use of the CARE system other than by the IJF Supervisors and/or Refereeing Commission members.

Article 14 – Ippon

Evaluation of the points in nage-waza.

The four criteria for ippon are speed, force, on the back and skilfully controlled until the end of the landing.

1. Ippon will be given when the contestant throws his opponent on the back, applying a technique or countering his opponent’s attacking technique, with considerable ability with maximum efficiency (*).

* “ikioi” = momentum with both force and speed and “hazumi” = skilfulness with impetus, sharpness or rhythm.

Rolling can be considered ippon only if there is no break during landing. The difference of the rolling makes the evaluation of the points. It is Ippon when uke rolls on his back.

2. All situations in which one of the contestants deliberately makes a “bridge” (head

and one foot or both feet in contact with the tatami) after having been thrown will be considered ippon.

This decision is taken for the safety of the contestants, so they do not try to escape from the technique and endanger their cervical spine. Also, an attempt of a bridge (arching the body) should be counted as a “bridge”.

No score or penalty will be given if the landing of uke occurs on the body of tori, in such a way that not all parts of uke’s body involving the bridge situation (head, foot or feet) touch the tatami.

Evaluation of the points in ne-waza

a) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant, who is unable to get away for 20 seconds after the announcement of osaekomi.

b) When a contestant gives up by tapping twice (2) or more with his hand or foot or says maitta (I give up!) generally as a result of osaekomi-waza, shime-waza or kansetsu-waza.

c) When a contestant is incapacitated by the effect of a shime-waza or kansetsu-waza.

Should one contestant be penalised with hansoku-make, the other contestant shall immediately be declared the winner with a score equivalent to ippon.

Special situations

a) Simultaneous techniques - when both contestants fall to the tatami after what appears to be simultaneous attacks and the referees cannot decide which technique dominated there should be no score awarded.

b) In the case where both contestants score simultaneous ippon the referee will act as regulated in article 13 paragraph 5.b.

Article 15 - Waza-ari

Evaluation of the points in nage-waza. The referee shall announce waza-ari when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds to the following criteria:

  • When the four ippon criteria are not fully achieved.

These landings are considered to be waza-ari.

In order not to give a bad example for young judokas, landing on both elbows or two hands or one elbow and one hand is considered valid and should be evaluated with waza-ari.

  • Landing only on one elbow cannot be used for assessment.
  • Landing on the side of the upper body should be evaluated with waza-ari.
  • Landing on one elbow, on the bottom or the knee with immediately continuation on the back will be waza-ari.
  • Rolling can be considered waza-ari if there is a break during landing. The difference of the rolling makes the evaluation of the points it is waza-ari when uke rolls on his side or hips.
  • Two waza-ari are the equivalent of one ippon (waza-ari-awasete-ippon) and the contest will be finished (Article 16).

These landings are not considered to be waza-ari.

Evaluation of the points in osaekomi-waza.

a) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant who is unable to get away for 10 seconds or more, but less than 20 seconds.

Article 16 - Waza-ari-awasete-ippon

Should one contestant gain a second waza-ari in the contest, the referee shall announce waza-ari-awasete-ippon.

Article 17 - Osaekomi-waza

Evaluation of ippon in osaekomi-waza is given when a contestant holds the other contestant who is unable to get away for 20 seconds, waza-ari is given for 10 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds.

The referee shall announce osaekomi for an applied technique when the contestant being held is controlled from every direction (from the side, rear or on top) by his opponent and must have his full back or complete upper back (scapular region) in contact with the tatami. The contestant applying the hold must not have his leg(s) or body controlled by his opponent’s legs. The contestant applying osaekomi must have his body on and over opponent’s body in covering it to holds opponent down underneath his body, with applying pressure onto opponent’s front upper body with his front upper body in either the kesa, the shiho or ura position, i.e. similar to the techniques kesa-kami-shiho-ura-gatame and sankaku-waza.

Should a contestant who is controlling his opponent with an osaekomi-waza, changed without losing control, into another osaekomi-waza, the osaekomi time will continue until the announcement of ippon (or equivalence), toketa or mate.

When osaekomi is being applied and tori commits an infringement meriting a penalty (shido):

If the osaekomi time is less than 10 seconds, the referee shall announce mate, return the contestants to their standing positions, award the penalty then recommence the contest by announcing hajime.

If the osaekomi time is 10 seconds or more, but less than 20 seconds, the referee shall announce mate, return the contestants to their standing positions, award the contestant who was in an advantageous position with the penalty (shido) and the score (waza-ari); then recommence the contest by announcing hajime.

However, should the penalty to be awarded be hansoku-make, the referee shall, after announcing sono-mama, consult with the judges, announce mate to return the contestants to their starting positions, then award hansoku-make and end the contest by announcing sore-made.

When osaekomi is being applied and uke commits an infringement meriting a penalty, the referee shall announce sono-mama, award the penalty, then recommence the contest by touching both contestants and announcing yoshi.

When the situation permits and in order not to interrupt the positive action of tori, the referee will award directly the penalty pointing uke without interrupting the contest with sono-mama.

However, should the penalty to be awarded be hansoku-make, the referee shall, after announcing sono-mama, consult with the judges, announce mate to return the contestants to their starting positions, then award hansoku-make and end the contest by announcing sore-made.

If both table judges agree that an osaekomi exists, but the referee has not announced osaekomi, they shall inform the referee and by the “majority of three” rule, the referee shall announce osaekomi immediately.

Toketa should be announced if, during osaekomi, uke succeeds in “trapping” the leg(s) of tori, either from above or from below the leg.

The referee should pay attention to the following situations where osaekomi is still valid and toketa must not be announced.

In situations where the back of the contestant being held is no longer in contact with the tatami, (e.g. “bridging”), but the contestant applying the hold maintains control, the osaekomi shall continue.

If uke escapes from osaekomi outside the contest area the referee must call toketa.

If there is no immediate continuation from either tori or uke in applying osaekomi waza, shime waza or kansetsu waza, he must call mate.

This kind of osaekomi-waza is not valid and the referee must call mate if there is no progression in the action.

This kind of osaekomi-waza is not valid and the referee must call mate immediately.

It is never allowed to hold an osaekomi just around the head/neck without control of at least one arm.

Article 18 - Prohibited Acts and Penalties

The prohibited acts are divided into:

  • Slight infringements will receive a penalty of shido.
  • Grave infringements will receive a penalty hansoku-make.

If the referee decides to penalise the contestant(s), (except in the case of sono-mama in ne-waza) he shall temporarily stop the contest by announcing mate, indicate the appropriate gesture for transgression and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act.

During the contest there will be two shido, and the third will be hansoku-make (2 warnings and then disqualification). Shido do not give a score to the other contestant, only technical scores can give points on the scoreboard.

Shido will be given to the competitor deserving it, in place, without having both competitors return to the formal start position (mate – shido – hajime) except when a shido is given for leaving the contest area.

There are several possibilities for disqualification (hansoku-make). When an athlete receives a hansoku-make they may or may not be allowed to continue in the competition if applicable.

In the case of hansoku-make resulting from progressive penalties, the contestant penalised with three shido is allowed to continue in the competition.

In the case of direct hansoku-make for protection of the judoka (diving headfirst onto the mat), the judoka is allowed to continue in the competition.

In the case of direct hansoku-make for acts against the spirit of judo the judoka cannot continue in the competition. The referee and judges must inform the person running the competition of this.

A penalty or penalties will not decide the winner, except for hansoku-make (direct or accumulative).

Double hansoku-make (three shido)

In regular time or golden score if both athletes receive three shido, both athletes will be considered losers, the contest result will be recorded as 0-0, with the following consequences:

  • Final – both athletes will be awarded 2nd place.
  • Bronze medal contest – both athletes will be awarded 5th place.
  • Semi-final – both athletes will be awarded 5th place.
  • Quarter-final or last 8 repechage – both athletes will be awarded 7th place.
  • Rounds prior to the quarter-final – both athletes considered to be losers and will remain in the position they reached on the draw sheet. They can compete in the team event if it follows an individual competition i.e. World Championships, Olympic Games etc.
  • Relevant ranking points will be assigned in the case of previous wins.

In a round robin, if both athletes are given three shido, they are considered losers for that contest only and the contest result is recorded as 0-0. They can both compete in the next contest if applicable.

In a team event, if both athletes are given three shido, they are considered losers for that match only and the contest result is recorded as 0-0. They can both compete in the next round if applicable.

Double direct hansoku-make

For a direct hansoku-make given to both contestants (in regular time or golden score), the IJF Ad Hoc Commission will decide the consequences.

Whenever a referee awards a penalty, he should demonstrate with a simple gesture the reason for the penalty.

A penalty can be awarded after the announcement of sore-made for any prohibited act done during the time allotted for the contest or, in some exceptional situations, for serious acts done after the signal to end the contest.

Referees are authorised to award penalties according to the “intention” or situation and in the best interest of the sport.

Should the referee decide to penalise the contestant(s), (except in the case of sono-mama in ne-waza) he shall temporarily stop the contest by announcing mate, should penalise or return the contestants to their starting positions (Article 11) and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act.

Before awarding hansoku-make, the referee must consult with the judges and make his decision in accordance with the “majority of three” rule. When both contestants infringe the rules at the same time, each should be awarded a penalty according to the seriousness of the infringement.

When both contestants have been given two (2) shido and subsequently each receives a further penalty, they should both be declared hansoku-make. A penalty in ne-waza should be applied in the same manner as in osaekomi.

Shido (Slight Infringements Group):

If a judoka (blue) commits a slight infringement and his opponent (white) throws him (blue) for waza-ari, both the penalty of shido for blue and the waza-ari for white will be given. If it is ippon (white) only the positive score will be assigned.

If a judoka (blue) commits a slight infringement and throws his opponent (white) but the latter (white) takes advantage of the situation to continue in ne-waza, the referee must announce the penalty for blue and at the same time allow the action to continue in favour of white until it reaches a conclusion either or score or mate. If blue counterattacks (e.g. breaks the osaekomi and takes over the control, breaks the osaekomi by applying shime-waza or kansetzu-waza) the referee must announce mate.

Shido is given to any contestant who has committed a slight infringement:

1. Negative positions, against the fighting spirit, will be penalised by shido (to adopt in a standing position, after kumi-kata, an excessively defensive posture, not searching for an attack, a defensive attitude etc.).

2. To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent (false attack). False attacks are defined as:

  • Tori has no intention of throwing.
  • Tori attacks without kumi-kata or immediately releases the kumi-kata.
  • Tori makes a single fake attack or a number of repeated fake attacks with no breaking of uke’s balance.
  • Tori puts a leg in between uke’s legs to block the possibility of an attack.

3. To pull the opponent down in order to start ne-waza unless in accordance with Article 10. When one contestant pulls his opponent down into ne-waza not in accordance with Article 10 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the referee shall announce mate and give shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 10 (without returning to the starting position).

4. In a standing position, before or after kumi-kata has been established, not to make any attacking moves. Recognizing the difficulty of preparing a throwing action, the time between kumi-kata and making an attack is 45 seconds as long as there is a positive progression. The referees should penalize strictly the contestant who does not engage in kumi-kata or who tries not to be gripped by the opponent

5. To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent’s face. The face means the area within the line bordered by the forehead, the front of the ears and the jawline.

6. To go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area either in standing position or in ne-waza (see Article 5 - Exceptions).

If a contestant puts one foot outside of the contest area without immediate attack or not returning immediately inside the contest area, he is penalised by shido. Two feet outside the contest area is penalised by shido.

If the contestant is pushed outside the contest area by his opponent, then the opponent will receive a shido. (If the competitors leave the contest area, they are not penalised by shido when the attack is engaged in a valid position).

7. To force the opponent with either one or both arms to take a bending position without immediate attack will be penalised by shido for a blocking attitude.

8. To intentionally avoid taking kumi-kata in order to prevent action in the contest. Normal kumi-kata is taking hold the right side of the opponent’s judogi, be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back with the left hand and with the right hand the left side of the opponent’s judogi be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back and always above the belt or vice versa.

As long as a contestant makes a cross grip, that means with two hands, one hand on the opposite side of the back, shoulder or arm of the other contestant, he should attack immediately, or the referee must penalise with shido. Under no circumstances it is permitted to grab below the belt.

Cross gripping should be followed by an immediate attack. Same rule as for belt gripping and one side gripping.

A contestant must not be penalised for holding with an abnormal grip if the situation has been brought about by his opponent ducking his head beneath the holder’s arm. Instead, the judoka who ducking beneath the holder’s arm without an immediate attack will be penalised with shido (2).

Hooking one leg between the opponent’s legs unless simultaneously attempting a

throwing technique is not considered to be the normal kumi-kata and the contestant must attack immediately or the referee must penalise with shido.

9. Unconventional kumi-kata (cross grip, one side grip, belt grip, pocket grip, pistol grip etc.) will be penalised if there is no immediate attack (see the following examples of unconventional kumi-kata).

10. In a standing position, to continually hold the opponent’s sleeve end(s) for a defensive purpose or to grasp by “screwing up” the sleeve end(s).

11. In a standing position, to continually keep the opponent’s fingers of one or both hands interlocked, in order to prevent action in the contest or to take the wrist or the hands of the opponent only to avoid the grip or the attack on him.

12. To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent’s sleeve or of his trousers either in the ends of the trouser legs or in the waistband.

13. To bend back the opponent’s finger(s) in order to break his grip.

14. Breaking the grip of the opponent with two hands (the referee should give shido only in the case of done infringement, not for supposed infringement).

15. Breaking the grip of the opponent with the knee or leg.

16. Cover the upper part of the lapel of the judogi jacket to prevent the grip.

17. Avoid uke’s grip with a blow on his arm or hand.

18. Blocking the opponent’s hand.

19. Athletes must enter and leave the field of play wearing their judogi in the proper way. If the judogi and/or belt becomes disarranged during the contest the judoka is obliged to quickly rearrange it back to the correct position. This can be between mate and hajime or during any break in action. The referee will award a penalty (shido or hansoku-make if it is the third penalties) towards the contestant (s) who does not re-adjust their judogi correctly between the mate and the subsequent hajime.

To intentionally disarrange his own or his opponent’s judogi; to untie or retie the belt or the trousers without the referee’s permission; to intentionally lose time arranging his judogi and belt. The referee should never touch a judoka’s judogi or belt.

20. Leg grabbing, grabbing the trousers, blocking or pushing the opponent’s leg(s) with their hands or arms. It is possible to grip the leg only when the two opponents are in a clear ne-waza position and the tachi-waza action has stopped.

These are valid actions and no shido will be given.

Tori in this tachi-shisei position can apply kansetsu-waza or shime-waza because uke is in a ne-waza position.

21. To encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the opponent’s body. The act of “encircling” means that the belt or jacket must completely encircle. Using the belt or jacket as an anchor for a grip (without encircling), e.g. to trap the opponent’s arm, should not be penalised.

22. To take the judogi in the mouth (either his own or his opponent’s judogi).

23. To put a foot or a leg in the opponent’s belt, collar or lapel.

24. To apply shime-waza using either your own or your opponent’s belt or bottom of the jacket or using only the fingers.

25. In shime-waza or kansetsu-waza while over-stretching the leg is forbidden: the referee will announce mate immediately and sanction the contestant with shido.

Shime-waza while over-stretching a straight leg is forbidden. Special attention will be given to situations: where tori, whilst applying a shime-waza, also over-stretches and straightens uke’s leg. Mate must be called immediately and a shido given.

26. To hug directly the opponent for a throw (bear hug).

Precision: To attack with a bear hug the athlete must have a minimum of one grip.

It is not valid to make a second grip simultaneously. Only touching the judogi or the opponent's hands in order to avoid grips, is not considered as kumi-kata, gripping is necessary.

Bear hug - double points: if, after a blue bear hug, white throws blue for a waza-ari, the score (white waza-ari) and the penalty (blue shido) will be given.

These are valid grips for bear hug.

27. To apply leg scissors to the opponent’s trunk (dojime), neck or head (scissor with crossed feet, while stretching out the legs. In shime-waza (e.g. ryote-jime) it is forbidden to use the legs to assist the grip.

28. To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip or to kick the opponent’s leg or ankle without applying any technique.

29. If both of the athletes are in a tachi-shisei (standing position) and one or both apply kansetsu-waza or shime-waza, mate and shido should be announced. However, if the action is dangerous or can injure the opponent, it will be hansoku-make.

30. The act of entangling the leg without making an immediate attack must be penalised with shido.

Hansoku-make (Grave Infringements Group):

Hansoku-make is given to any contestant who commits a grave infringement or who having been given two (2) shido, commits a further slight infringement.

Direct hansoku-make for protection of the judoka: the competitor loses this contest but can continue in the competition if applicable.

1.To “dive” headfirst, onto the tatami by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as uchi-mata, harai-goshi, kata-garuma etc. it is forbidden to somersault forward when uke is on the shoulders or the back of tori.

2. Head defence, to ensure that judo has as little trauma as possible, if uke attempts voluntarily to use the head with any movement which is dangerous for the head, neck or spine, for defence and to avoid landing in / escaping from a score he shall be penalised with hansoku-make.

Special attention will be given to situations where tori attempts to throw his opponent during tachi-waza with, for example, seoi-otoshi (drop seoi-nage), sode-tsurikomi-goshi with the grip on both sleeves and koshi-guruma with both grips on the collar and uke makes an involuntary head defence. These are examples and this situation can occur with other throwing techniques. In this situation there is no penalty for either tori or uke.

Direct hansoku-make for acts against the spirit of judo: judoka are NOT allowed to continue in the competition and will remain in the position they reached on the draw sheet.

1. To apply kawazu-gake (to throw the opponent by winding one leg around the opponent’s leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards into him). Even if the thrower twists/turns during the throwing action, this should still be considered “kawazu-gake” and be penalised. Techniques such as o-soto-gari, o-uchi-gari, and uchi-mata where the foot/leg is entwined with opponent’s leg will be permitted and should be scored.

2. To apply kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint. To attempt such throws as harai-goshi, uchi-mata, etc., with only one hand gripping the opponent’s lapel from a position resembling ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (in which the wrist of the opponent is trapped beneath the thrower’s armpit) and deliberately falling, face down, onto the tatami is likely to cause injury and will be penalised. No intent to throw an opponent cleanly onto his back is a dangerous action and will be treated in the same way as ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.

3. To fall directly to the tatami while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (see point 2 above).

4. To reap the opponents supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as harai-goshi etc.

5. To make any action this may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae or may be against the spirit of judo.

6. To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other’s movement.

7. To lift off the tatami the opponent who is lying on the tatami and to drive him back into the tatami.

8. To disregard the referee’s instructions.

9. To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or referee during the contest.

10. To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not).

11. Any action against the spirit of judo (this includes anything that can be described as anti-judo) may be punished by a direct hansoku-make at any time in the contest.

When a contestant has repeated slight infringements and is to be penalised with his third (3rd) shido the referee, after consultation with the judges, shall give the contestant hansoku-make, that is to say that the third (3rd) shido is not announced as shido, but shall be announced directly as hansoku-make. The contest ends according to the Article 13.

Article 19 - Default and Withdrawal

The decision of fusen-gachi shall be given to any contestant whose opponent does not appear for his contest according to the 30 seconds rules.

Forfeit of a contest: If one contestant is ready on time and the opponent is missing an IJF Sport Director (or nominated person) will ask the speaker to announce, the last call for the missing athlete.

The referee will then invite the prepared contestant to wait at the edge of the competition area. The scoreboard will start to count down 30 seconds. If at the end of 30 seconds the opponent is still not present the mat referee will invite the athlete to enter the competition area and will be declared the winner by fusen-gachi.

The Referees must be sure before awarding fusen-gachi that they have received the authority to do so by the IJF Sport Director or nominated person.

The IJF Ad Hoc Commission can decide if an athlete forfeiting a contest may participate in the repechage.

The decision of kiken-gachi shall be given to any contestant whose opponent withdraws from the competition for any reason, during the contest.

Any contestant not willing to comply with the requirements of hygiene, hair and head cover regulation (see E1.3 Hygiene) shall be refused the right to compete and the opponent shall win the contest by fusen-gachi, if the contest has not yet started, or by kiken-gachi, if the contest has already started, according to the “majority of three” rule.

If a contestant loses a contact lens during the contest and cannot immediately recover it, and if he then informs the referee that he cannot continue competing without the contact lens, the referee shall give the victory to his opponent by kiken-gachi after consulting with the judges and IJF Supervisors and/or IJF Refereeing Commission Members.

Article 20 - Injury, Illness or Accident

In this article the person in the role of the doctor is defined in Appendix E.

The decision of the contest where one contestant is unable to continue because of injury, illness or accident during the contest shall be given by the referee after consultation with the judges according to the following clauses:

a) Injury

1. Where the cause of the injury is attributed to the injured contestant, he/she shall lose the contest.

2. Where the cause of the injury is attributed to the uninjured contestant the uninjured contestant shall lose the contest.

3. Where it is impossible to determine which of the contestants was the cause of the injury, the contestant unable to continue shall lose the contest.

4. Where there is an injury caused by athletes from another contest that takes place on a nearby tatami. The injured athlete has the right to ask the referee to see the doctor and receive treatment if necessary and is able to continue in the contest if able.

5. Where there is an injury caused by an external object (e.g. LED or advertising board, photographer camera). The injured athlete has the right to ask the referee to see the doctor and receive treatment if necessary and is able to continue in the contest if able.

If during the contest a contestant is injured due to an action by the opponent and the injured contestant cannot continue, the referees should analyse the case and make a decision based on the rules. Each case shall be decided on its own merit.

b) Sickness, generally, where one contestant is taken sick during a contest and is unable to continue, he/she shall lose the contest.

c) Accident, where an accident occurs, which is due to an outside influence (force majeure), after consulting with the IJF Supervisors and/or Refereeing Commission members, the contest shall be considered cancelled or postponed. In those cases of ‘force majeure’, the Sport Director, the Sport Commission and the IJF Supervisors and/or Refereeing Commission members will take the final decision.

Medical Examinations

a) The referee shall call the doctor, if necessary, also inside the contest area, to attend to a contestant who has received a severe impact to the head or back (spinal column), or whenever the referee has reason to believe there may be a grave or serious injury. In either case, the doctor will examine the contestant in the shortest time possible and indicate to the referee whether the contestant can continue or not.

Generally, only one (1) doctor for each contestant is allowed on the competition area. Should a doctor require an assistant(s), the referee must first be informed.

The coach is never allowed on the competition area. The referee shall draw near to the injured contestant to ensure that the assistance provided by the doctor is within the rules.

However, the referee may consult with the judges in case he needs to comment on any decision.

If the doctor, after examining an injured contestant, advises the referees that the contestant cannot continue the contest the referee, after consultation with the judges, shall end the contest and declare the opponent to be the winner by kiken-gachi.

b) The contestant may ask the referee to call for the doctor, but in this case the contest is terminated, and his opponent shall win by kiken-gachi.

c) The doctor may also ask to attend to his contestant, but in this case the contest is terminated, and the opponent will win by kiken-gachi.

In any case whenever the referees are of the opinion that the contest should not continue, the central referee after consulting with the IJF Supervisors and/or Refereeing Commission members, shall end the contest and indicate the result in accordance with the rules.

Bleeding injuries, when a bleeding injury occurs, the referee shall call the doctor to assist in stopping and isolating the bleeding, if possible, outside the contest area, with the presence of a judge. The athlete is not allowed to compete while bleeding.

However, the same bleeding injury may be treated by the doctor on two (2) occasions. The third (3rd) time that the same bleeding injury occurs, the referee, after previous consultation with the judges, shall end the contest for the contestant’s own safety and he shall declare the opponent to be the winner by kiken-gachi. In any case where the bleeding cannot be contained and isolated, the opponent shall be the winner by kiken-gachi

Minor injuries, a minor injury may be treated by the contestant himself. For example, in the case of a dislocated finger, the referee shall stop the contest (by calling mate or sono-mama) and allow the contestant to reset the dislocated finger. This action should be done immediately with no assistance from the referee or the doctor and the contestant can continue in the contest.

The contestant will be allowed to reset the same finger on two (2) occasions. If the same dislocation occurs a third (3rd) time, the contestant shall not be considered to be in condition to continue in the contest. The referee, after previous consultation with the judges, shall end the contest and declare the opponent to be the winner by kiken-gachi.

The doctors of the organising committee or the accredited doctor of the teams intervene upon request of the referees.

The doctors of the organising committee or teams’ doctors must be able to

intervene on the field of play, at their own request, when deemed necessary, in case of danger to the athlete(s) health i.e. a bad landing on the head or a strangulation. For justifying this exceptional request, they should stand at the edge of the competition surface showing two arms in cross in the height of the chest to inform the referee that they wish to make an emergency intervention. The referee must allow the doctor to enter the tatami while stopping the contest.

Three cases are possible:

The team doctor / local organisation doctor / IJF doctor announces that the athlete cannot continue the contest because their health is in danger. The opponent will be declared winner by fusen-gachi.

The team doctor / local organisation doctors / IJF doctor announces that the athlete can continue without danger to his health and the contest continues.

If the intervention of the team’s doctor is not justified by the IJF Supervisors and/or IJF Refereeing Commission members and the IJF Medical Commission delegate a final decision will be made about the continuation of the contest and will make an official report (see Appendix E).

Medical Assistance

The medical assistance in the following cases should be outside of the competition area, close to the medical table, the injured contestant must be accompanied by one of the judges.

a) In a minor injury.

In the case of a broken nail, the doctor is allowed to assist in cutting the nail. The doctor may also help in adjusting a scrotum injury (testicles).

b) In a bleeding injury.

For safety measures whenever there is blood it must always be completely isolated with the assistance of the doctor by means of adhesive tape, bandages, nasal tampons, (the use of blood clotters and haemostatics products is permitted). When the doctor is called to assist a contestant, such medical assistance should be given as quickly as possible.

Note: With the exception of the above situations, if the doctor applies any treatment the opponent shall win by kiken-gachi.

Types of vomiting

Any type of vomiting by a contestant shall result in kiken-gachi for the other contestant. (See paragraph: b) Sickness).

In the case when a contestant through a deliberate action causes an injury to the opponent, the penalty given to the contestant inflicting the injury on the opponent shall be a direct hansoku-make, apart from any other disciplinary action that may be taken by IJF Ad Hoc Commission.

When a doctor clearly realises - especially in the case of shime-waza – that there is a serious danger to the health of one of the contestant that he is responsible for, he can go to the edge of the competition area and call upon the referees to immediately stop the contest. The referees shall take all necessary steps to assist the doctor. Such an intervention will necessarily mean the loss of the contest for his contestant and should therefore only be taken in extreme cases.

If a cadet loses consciousness during shime-waza they are no longer able to continue in the competition.

The official team doctor shall have a medical degree and must register prior to the competition. He shall be the only person allowed to sit in the designated area and must be so identified. e.g. by wearing a red cross armband or waistcoat.

When accrediting a doctor for their team, the National Federations must take the responsibility for the actions of their doctors. The doctors must be aware of any amendments and the interpretations of the rules.

If an injured athlete needs prolonged medical treatment on the tatami, the referee will declare the non-injured opponent as the winner who will then leave the competition area.

The referee must stay on the tatami observing treatment or emergency procedures until the injured athlete is transported safely from the competition area.

If necessary, the medical team should screen the injured athlete off from the view of the public.

The referee should be the last person to leave the tatami.

If the treatment of the injured athlete is extended onto the safety area of a neighbouring competition area, the Sport Director will stop any contests on affected tatami until it is safe to continue.

Article 21 - Situations not Covered by the Refereeing Rules

When a situation arises, which is not covered by these rules, it shall be dealt with and a decision given by the referees after consultation with the IJF Ad Hoc Commission, Refereeing Commission members and/or IJF Supervisors.

Bow entering and leaving the tatami

Standing before the contest

Inviting the contestants onto the tatami

Ippon

Waza-ari

Osaekomi

Toketa

Waza-ari-awasete-ippon

Mate

Sono-mama <=> Yoshi

Stand up

Not valid

To cancel expressed opinion

Non combativity

False attack

Hajime

Sore-made

Kachi

To award a penalty

Penalty for a blocking attitude with one hand

Penalty for cross gripping on one side

Penalty for refusing kumi-kata by covering lapel

To call the doctor

Penalty for a blocking attitude with two hands

Penalty for a pistol grip

Penalty for stepping out

Penalty for not taking a grip

Penalty for leg grabbing

Penalty for fingers inside sleeve

Penalty for not fixing judogi

Fix judogi